Air pollution in European cities is still threatening human health, even though EU emission directives have been sharpened over the last 25 years. Adverse health effects of airborne particles are strongly linked to their size. A major fraction of outdoor ultrafine particles is traffic generated from road, rail, air, and sea transportation. The story that nPETS aims to communicate is the life of the sub 100 nm emissions from its creation to its potential path to human beings and animals. The nPETS consortium aims to improve the knowledge of transport generated exhaust and non-exhaust nanoparticle emissions and their impacts on health and new public policies...
Entidad financiadora: European Commission
Starting date: June 2021 - End date: May 2024
Subsidy amount: 5.3 Million €
Researcher responsible for CSIC: Fulvio Amato(874.811 €)
Project link: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/954377/es
Caucho granulado y contaminación atmosférica: un aspecto medioambiental del reciclaje de neumáticos.El fin último de este estudio es continuar ampliando nuestro conocimiento sobre la calidad del aire que respiramos en diferentes ambientes. Hasta la fecha no se ha realizado ningún estudio tan detallado sobre exposición a material de neumáticos reciclados en ambientes tan sensibles como parques infantiles o pistas deportivas. Este conocimiento debe transferirse no solo a las autoridades pero especialmente al ciudadano. La colaboración entre la Fundación ACS y el CSIC continuará divulgando resultados y mostrando a todos la necesidad de realizar estos estudios y el beneficio social que producen.
Entidad financiadora: Fundación ACS
Starting date: Diciembre 2020 - End date: diciembre 2021
Investigadora: Teresa Moreno
Evaluación de la presencia y de la eficiencia de desinfección de SARS-CoV-2 en superficies y aire de autobuses de transporte públicoSe pretende determinar la carga vírica en el aire y en superficies en autobuses del transporte público, y proponer actuaciones para minimizar las posibilidades de infección en su interior, añadidas a las actuales obligaciones de uso de mascarillas. Así mismo se pretende comprobar el efecto de las posibles acciones a implementar en la reducción de la probabilidad de contagio tanto en aire como superficies.
En este proyecto tratamos de evaluar y aplicar-optimizar unos mínimos para reducir al máximo posible el contagio. Estamos ante un problema general de transporte metropolitano y si consensuamos acciones apropiadas según lo expuesto serán de gran interés no solo para las empresas de transporte sino evidentemente para la población en general.
Entidad financiadora: CSIC (fondos COVID) y TMB
Starting date: 04/05/2020 - End date: 03/05/2021
Investigadora: Teresa Moreno
Participantes: Xavier Querol, Andres Alastuey, Natalia Moreno, Mª Cruz Minguillon
Reducing Emission Modelling UncertaintyREMY project, through a detailed quantitative modelling analysis in three EU critical areas (Po Valley -IT, Catalonia - E, Southern Poland - PL), investigates the impact of uncertainty in pollutants emission and air dispersion models that could negatively affect air quality plan, both on the regional and the local scale, leading to the identification of ineffective emission abatement strategies.
Entidad financiadora: European Commission (LIFE program)
Investigador responsable: Fulvio Amato
Starting date: May 2021- End date: April 2024.
The general objective of EXPOPLAS is to assess the human exposure to chemical additives associated with plastics and to identify:
i) chemical contaminants to which we are most exposed,
ii) main routes of exposure,
iii) most contaminated food items, the processes and treatments that lead to greater contamination of foodstuff,
iv) main sources of inhalable contaminants in indoor and outdoor environments.
Funding: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (CGL2016-79132-R)
Start Date: 01/06/2020 – End Date: 31/05/2023
Project Leader: Teresa Moreno Pérez , Ethel Eljarrat Esebag
MOnitoring of MIcroplastics in Air and assessment of human exposure and risks through inhalation and ingestion.
MOMIA project aims at determining the occurrence and effects of microplastics in indoor and outdoor air from urban environments and evaluate the risks towards human health.Contact: Angeliki Karanasiou y Silvia Lacorte
Non-EXhaust emissions from road Transport: Developing cost-effective measures based on impact on air quality, health and the implications of electric vehicles uptake
During the last two decades, particulate matter (PM) emissions from vehicles exhaust have been reduced progressively (from 80-90% for Europe) to less than 50%, through the implementation of the EUROx (or similar) directives. Non-exhaust emissions instead (which consist of brake/tire/road wear and road dust resuspension), did not decrease or have even growth due to the lack of policies and increase of transport activity, representing now the dominant source of PM from traffic...Contact: Fulvio Amato y Angeliki Karanasiou
Phenotypic and metabolomic effects of atmospheric particulate matter on physiologically relevant human lung cell cultures: source apportionment and prediction of biological effects
Main objective: To have a deep understanding of the biological effects of particulate matter (PM) exposure on lung epithelial cells, and to have powerful predictive models that enable the risk assessment of PM inhalation.Contact: Fulvio Amato y Carmen Bedia
DescriptionThe aim of IDEALPORT (Particle emissions from harbour areas: release, fate and management) is to assess the impact of industrial harbour activities on non-exhaust particle exposures and health impacts. Harbour areas are relevant sources of atmospheric particulate matter due to activities such as vessel maintenance operations and handling of dusty materials. Specifically, maintenance operations have become an emerging environmental and health risk due to the increasing use of engineered nanoparticles in antifouling paints and protective coatings. Harbour emissions can affect both indoor and outdoor air quality, and therefore cause health impacts due to inhalation to workers but also the general population. Understanding these impacts is complex, and thus a multidisciplinary approach is needed. IDEALPORT will address this gap by monitoring non-exhaust harbour particle (coarse, ultrafine and nanoparticles) emissions, understanding particle sources and emission mechanisms, quantifying personal exposure concentrations, establishing links with health by characterising particle toxicity, and promoting sustainable management practices by applying exposure prediction and forecasting models and proposing real-time monitoring strategies.
Contact: Mar Viana
This project aims at developing a new procedure for real time detection of Saharan dust in the atmosphere and for real-time quantification of dust mass concentration in PM10. Saharan dust may contribute more than 60% to the total PM10 concentration in Mediterranean countries during a strong dust pollution event. This may lead to exceedances of the daily average concentration of 50 µg/m and may cause adverse consequences on human health. On the other hand, mineral dust affects the climate system directly by scattering and absorbing radiation. Model AE33 ‘Next Generation’ Aethalometers (Magee Scientific) simultaneously measuring absorption properties of PM10, PM1 and PM1-TSP are deployed at the three measuring stations which form part of the EGAR monitoring network (Barcelona, Montseny and Montsec). Multi-wavelengths absorption measurements and PM chemically speciated data are the key measurements used for the quantification of the dust mass absorption cross section (MAC) thus allowing determining the amount of African dust in the atmosphere from absorption measurements only.
Project link: dnaap
This is a collective study of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), with the participation of Environmental Geochemistry and Atmospheric Research group (EGAR) from IDAEA-CSIC, Kunak and ISGlobal. The aims of this research project are to investigate the association between air quality and athletic performance, among athletes over 18 years of age, competing in the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Athletic Series. Air quality was monitored in Yokohama during the World Relays Championship, assessing particle and gaseous pollutant concentrations in the stadium and in the training and warm-up area. In addition, the athletes filled out a questionnaire about respiratory diseases and air quality perception. The ultimate goal was to associate pollutant levels with the prevalence of respiratory disease and therefore with potential impacts on athletic performance. The research study is part of the IAAF’s continued pilot programme to measure air quality at stadiums around the world.
In this study, the investigators will recruit pregnant women in Barcelona and assess the effects of in-utero exposure to traffic-related pollution on birth weight, fetal growth trajectories, and placental function for each pregnancy. The investigators will estimate exposure to several pollutants and transportation noise and evaluate the roles of socioeconomic status, green space, physical activity, diet, and stress.Financing entity: Health Effects Institute (HEI)
Duration from 01/03/2018 to 28/02/2022
Subsidy amount: 999.998 $
Researcher responsible for CSIC: XAVIER QUEROL and TERESA MORENO (CSIC 42.726 $)
Contact: Teresa Moreno, Xavier Querol
Air pollution provokes cardiovascular and respiratory diseases but also decelerates the neurodevelopment. Vertical vegetation barriers (green walls) may reduce exposure to atmospheric pollutants of vulnetrable receptors such as school children. The GRASS project will evaluate experimentaly the efficiency of green barriers at two schools of Barcelona in real-world conditions. Project funded by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (ASPB).
Contact: Fulvio Amato
Reducing risks from Occupational exposure to Coal Dust (ROCD) EU Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) project #754205 Despite international efforts to limit worker exposure, coal mine dusts continue to impact the health of thousands of miners across Europe. Modern, practicable assessment tools and devices are urgently needed to improve risk models, control dusts and protect workers, particularly from the fine fraction (PM2.5) which is increasingly implicated in human disease. These issues will be addressed through 5 integrated work packages (WPs) by a world-leading interdisciplinary consortium of 10 institutions from UK, Poland, Slovenia, Germany and Spain. Global dissemination of developed protocols and training modules, and improved monitoring and suppression devices will reduce incidences of coal mining-related disease…
Project link: ROCD
Contact: Teresa Moreno
The HOUSE project aims at investigating the atmospheric scenarios and processes yielding to the high formation rates of ozone (O3), ultrafine particles (UFP) and secondary aerosols (SA) typical of the Western Mediterranean Basin in summer. In this area the formation of high levels of these atmospheric constituents take place in a very complex system in which solar radiation, humidity, temperature, volatile organic compounds, inorganic gaseous pollutants, halogens, radicals, ozone and ultrafine particles play a major role. The analysis of these processes is important for policies focusing on abatement of both climate forcing and health-ecosystems effects of air pollution. The HOUSE project will provide important information for designing and assessing air quality and climate plans for abating photochemical pollutants in Spain. Within the HOUSE project the optical characterization of tropospheric aerosols will consist of both ground and columnar measurements performed at the Montseny and Montsec GAW/ACTRIS stations. The obtained extensive and intensive aerosol optical measurements will be related with the physical and chemical measurements of aerosols in order to derive site-specific aerosol optical parameters considered as fundamental inputs for climate models and policies.
COST Action CA16109 COLOSSAL is a network with 79 participating institutions from 34 countries. It is scientifically coordinated by IDAEA-CSIC. COLOSSAL states for Chemical On-Line cOmpoSition and Source Apportionment of fine aerosoL, and focuses on fine atmospheric aerosols. The main challenge of the Action is to consistently assess atmospheric fine aerosol spatial and temporal variability, their sources and processes. The geographical coverage is mainly Europe, although partners from outside participate in the consortium. The project is organized in four working groups, dealing with the non-refractory part of aerosol, the organic aerosol source apportionment, the brown and black carbon measurements and source apportionment, and an integrated overview of these measurements in Europe. The main instrumentation in which the project relies is the long-term deployable aerosol mass spectrometer, Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), and filter photometers – Aethalometers. The processing and interpretation of European data is enhanced within the COLOSSAL network. Activities carried out within the network towards the joint interpretation of refractory and non-refractory aerosol fractions are a step forward. More than 20 one-year datasets for organic aerosol sources and types are being jointly interpreted. Outcomes will be relevant for air quality modellers, epidemiologists and policy makers. More information at Colossal
Project link: Colossal
Cost link: Cost
Contact: María Cruz Minguillón
Aerosol optical properties are strongly dependent on ambient relative humidity. Depending on their size, composition and the ambient humidity, atmospheric particles will take up varying amounts of water, thereby altering their optical properties and impacting their contribution to aerosol radiative forcing. Along with particle size, this humidity dependence also plays an important role in the life cycle of atmospheric particles including their growth into cloud droplets and wet deposition processes removing them from the atmosphere. Global models use a variety of schemes for implementing hygroscopic growth. The representation of hygroscopic growth in models may result in predicted aerosol optical properties being quite different from observations. To date the ability of global models to predict hygroscopic growth has not been rigorously evaluated against in-situ measurements due in part to the lack of harmonized and globally available hygroscopicity data.
Contact: Gloria Titos
Prediction of emissions and exposure to micro- and nanoparticles in industrial environments Major knowledge gaps remain regarding exposure to fine and ultrafine particles in indoor air. Industrial environments are a special case study, given the broad range of sources and processes with potential to generate particle emissions and therefore exposure to these contaminants. However, to date, studies on air quality in this kind of environments are relatively scarce in the scientific literature. Unlike direct emissions, fugitive particulate emissions in industrial environments lack legal guidelines (e.g., limit values), and this is mainly because of the absence of a sound scientific basis on which the mechanisms and processes by which they are generated are described. Therefore, these indoor emissions have a large potential for improvement to reduce impacts on air quality, health, and possibly climate. The overall objective of the PREDEXPIN project is to assess the impact of industrial activities on air quality and exposure to micro- (PM) and nanoparticles (NP) in indoor air. To this end, the mechanisms controlling particle release to workplace air in industrial environments and their impact on personal exposure are being evaluated in a number of selected indoor industrial processes under real-world operating conditions at pilot plant-scale. IThe processes selected are both traditional and innovative, being mechanical in nature (e.g., handling of nanoparticles, milling/grinding activities) and thermal (e.g., plasma projection). The potential impact of these emissions of on outdoor air emissions is also assessed. In parallel to these activities, dustiness tests are being carried out to determine PM and NP emissions from selected raw materials, using a highly innovative approach based on the development of a novel modular tool. The ultimate goal of the project is to improve indoor air quality in industrial environments by achieving a better understanding of the release mechanisms of particles in indoor air, which will in turn allow for the design and implementation of adequate and tailored mitigation strategies. The project will have a major impact on four main areas: (a) the assessment of the levels of exposure to micro- and nano-scaled particulates in industrial environments; (b) increased understanding of the release mechanisms and processes of particles in indoor and outdoor air from industrial activities; (c) mitigation of the impacts of these emissions on indoor air quality and on worker exposure, by developing effective mitigation strategies; (d) the optimisation of industrial processes by increasing their efficiency through the reduction of fugitive emissions.
BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn Childhood is a critical period for brain maturation and mental development. It involves many factors. Several studies in animals have generated the hypothesis that ultrafine particles in city air may interfere negatively in the development. Discover the level of pollution in schools and understand their role in child health is one of the challenges of our time. This knowledge will create healthy environments and healthy for future generations to the present. Aim Studying the impact of air pollution in cities on the cognitive development of children Characteristics of the study The study will involve children in second, third and fourth of 40 primary schools in Barcelona with different pollution levels.
Project link: Breathe
Safe production and Use of Nanomaterials in the Ceramic Industry CERASAFE aims to assess and improve environmental health and safety (EHS) in the ceramic industry. The project's objective is to study industrial processes and activities, which may generate nanoparticle emissions into workplace air, and to assess worker exposure by evaluating the particle release processes, characterizing the particles emitted, and understanding their toxicity. Finally, mitigation measures to minimize exposure will be proposed. CERASAFE will also develop a tool to discriminate engineered nanoceramic particles from background aerosols, thus innovating in the field of characterisation methods relevant for EHS. The project will establish a set of Good Manufacturing and Use Practices for nanoceramic materials. Results will be collected in a public database complemented with risk assessment and including recommendations for industry, users and stakeholders to ensure the safe production process for nanoceramic materials.
Project link: Cerasafe
Contact: Mar Viana
CAPTOR (Collective Awareness Platform for TroposphEric Ozone Pollution) is an H2020 project which aims to: - install and maintain a network of low-cost sensors for ozone monitoring with and for European citizens - deliver high quality, low cost and scientifically relevant ozone data from the sensor network - support processes of discussion and learning on local level to find solutions to ozone problems (involving local decision makers, citizens, organisations and researchers) - actively involve and empower European citizens to stimulate ownership and responsibility CAPTOR started in January 2016 with 8 partners and is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme under the Grant Agreement No. 68810. Project link: Captor
Contact: Mar Viana
The main objective of AIRUSE project -Testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe (LIFE11/ENV/ES/584)- is to provide the National Authorities of Southern European countries with the appropriate measures to reduce PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in urban air. Have a look at our video presentation. AIRUSE conclusions on PM source apportionment, PM mitigation trials will be presented as well as the suggested measures to decrease PM in 5 Southern European cities, targeted to meet air quality standards and to approach, as much as possible, the WHO guidelines. A guidebook on mitigation measures to be applied in cities will be available soon in 5 languages (English, Italian, Greek , Spanish and Portuguese). Apply for a free hardcopy or digital copy here
Project link: Ariuse
Contact: Xavier Querol
The main goal of Eco-BRAKE is the research on new materials for passenger cars brake pads with reduced emissions of particulate matter and heavy metals and metalloids, given their high health impact. By means of the advanced experimental techniques, and the synergy between research and vehicle industry our aim is to produce insights for a future regulation on brake pad materials in Europe.
Proyecto realizado con la Ayuda Fundación BBVA a Investigadores y Creadores Culturales 2016
Contact: Fulvio Amato
New technical improvements in monitoring equipment are producing increasingly sophisticated instruments that are becoming more portable, making it practical for an individual to monitor a range of different air quality parameters (PM sizes and number, various gases) simultaneously while moving through the city. This opens up the possibility of recording much more accurately the actual real-time dose of air pollutants inhaled daily by regular commuters. Our starting hypothesis is that the quality of the air we breathe while commuting by public bus will vary greatly according on the type of fuel and post treatment (e.g. SCRT filters) technology, route chosen, location inside the bus and infiltration of outdoor air, the latter mostly related to the age of the bus and seasonal variations influencing ventilation and air conditioning operating conditions. The primary objective of this project is to significantly improve our understanding of what controls air quality inside public buses, identifying the effect of each variable to allow us to elaborate a protocol of best practice regarding air quality while commuting in this transport mode.
Contact: Teresa Moreno
The overall aim of IMPROVE (Implementing Methodologies and Practices to Reduce air pollution Of the subway enVironmEnt) is to provide a benchmark study that will lead to real improvement in subway air quality. Published research has shown that in some cases air quality in subway stations and access tunnels can be poor, although the amount of information available remains rather limited and piecemeal in character. Physical measurements frequently consider only one aerosol size fraction, sampling campaigns may be limited in time and place, and chemical analyses are usually partial and/or small in number. IMPROVE LIFE is bringing together all information published in different cities across the world over the last 20 years, identify the main pollution sources, and ascertain just where we are in our understanding of the subject. The understanding and conclusions reached from this initial state-of-the-art overview of the problem will then be applied to the underground rail system in Barcelona.
Project link: Improve Life+
Contact: Teresa Moreno
Optical properties and radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in the Western Mediterranean depending on aerosol sources and chemical composition. The PRISMA project (MEC , CGL2012-39623-C02-01) has as major objective to assess the direct radiative forcing caused by the tropospheric aerosols in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). With the PRISMA project the first database on physical, chemical and optical properties of tropospheric aerosols in the WMB was obtained through in-situ surface measurements performed at remote mountain top stations (> 1500 m) with no local anthropogenic emissions influence. Moreover, ceilometers data and information from instrumented flights allowed the detailed physic-chemical characterization of different aerosol layers which typically form in the area through regional recirculation processes. Thanks to the PRISMA project the sources of aerosols with major impact on the climate of the WMB were determined and characterized thus allowing the study of the relationship between Air Quality and Climate.
ACTRIS is the European Research Infrastructure for the observation of Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases. ACTRIS is composed of observing stations, exploratory platforms, instruments calibration centres, and a data centre. ACTRIS serves a vast community working on models and forecast systems by offering high quality data for atmospheric gases, clouds, and trace gases. The primary objective of ACTRIS is to provide the 4D-variability of clouds and of the physical, optical and chemical properties of short-lived atmospheric species, from the surface throughout the troposphere to the stratosphere, with the required level of precision, coherence and integration. The EGAR research group provides high quality, quality assured and quality checked data on aerosol chemical and physical properties measured at Montseny and Montsec sites since 2002.
Project link: Actris-2
Contact: Andrés Alastuey